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Commodore 128

Commodore 128
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The Commodore 128 (C128, CBM 128, C=128) home computer was the last 8-bit machine commercially released by Commodore Business Machines (CBM). Introduced in January 1985 at the CES in Las Vegas, it appeared three years after its predecessor, the bestselling Commodore 64.

The C128 was a significantly expanded successor to the C64, with nearly full compatibility. The new machine had 128 kB of RAM in two 64 kB banks, and an 80-column color video output. It had a redesigned case and keyboard. Also included was a Zilog Z80 CPU which allowed the C128 to run CP/M, as an alternative to the usual Commodore BASIC environment. The presence of the Z80 and the huge CP/M software library it brought, coupled with the C64's software library, gave the C128 one of the broadest ranges of available software among its competitors.

The primary hardware designer of the C128 was Bil Herd, who had worked on the Plus/4. Other hardware engineers were Dave Haynie and Frank Palaia, while the IC design work was done by Dave DiOrio. The main Commodore system software was developed by Fred Bowen and Terry Ryan, while the CP/M subsystem was developed by Von Ertwine.

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CPUs:[14] MOS Technology 8502 @ 2 MHz (1 MHz selectable for C64 compatibility mode) Zilog Z80 @ 4 MHz (running at an effective 2 MHz because of wait states in order to allow the VIC-II video chip access to the system bus) (C128D(CR)): MOS Technology 6502 for the integrated floppy controller MMU: Memory Management Unit controls 8502/Z80 processor selection; ROM/RAM banking; common RAM areas; relocation of zero page and stack RAM: 128 KB system RAM, 2 KB 4-bit dedicated color RAM (for the VIC-II E), 16 KB or 64 KB dedicated video RAM (for the VDC), up to 512 KB REU expansion RAM ROM: 72 KB 28 KB BASIC 7.0 4 KB MLM 8 KB C128 KERNAL 4 KB screen editor 4 KB Z80 BIOS 16 KB C64 ROM: ?9 KB C64 BASIC 2.0 + ?7 KB C64 KERNAL 4 KB C64 (or international) character generator 4 KB C128 (or national) character generator 32 KB Internal Function ROM (optional: for placement in motherboard socket) 32 KB External Function ROM (optional: for placement in REU socket) Video: MOS 8564/8566 VIC-II E (NTSC/PAL) for 40-column composite video (a TV set can be used instead of a monitor if desired) Direct register access through memory-mapped I/O Text mode: 40×25, 16 colors Graphics modes: 160×200, 320×200 8 hardware sprites 2 KB dedicated 4-bit color RAM, otherwise uses main memory as video RAM MOS 8563 VDC (or, in C128DCR, the 8568) for 80-column digital RGBI component video, compatible with IBM PC CGA monitors, monochrome display also possible on composite video monitors; usable with TV sets only when the set has SCART and/or baseband video-in sockets in addition to the antenna connector. Color is possible through SCART, only monochrome through baseband video-in. Graphics modes: Fully programmable, typical modes are 320x200, 640×200, and 640×400 (interlaced).